This work presents an artificial intelligence approach to top-down floorplanning of integrated circuits (IC). The approach divides the floorplanning process into separate knowledge-based and algorithmic tasks. This enables the use of IC specialized knowledge to drive sophisticated floorplanning algorithms and interpret their results. This book describes PIAF, a prototype system that implements the developed approach. Special attention is paid to a detailed description of the architecture of PIAF, its inference engine, knowledge representation schemes, explanation facility, and a mechanism for backtracking with context recovery. This volume also presents in detail new graph theoretical algorithms for floorplan global routing and area and shape minimization. The interaction between these algorithms and the knowledge-based components is described. Rule-based techniques for the selection of a floorplan from a family of solutions according to design tools capabilities and circuit description are also presented. This monograph on CAD, floorplanning, global routing, artificial intelligence and graph theory is intended for graduate students and researchers. cad.
Patrick Geddes is considered a forefather of the modern urban planning movement. Patrick Geddes and Planning - a Critical View studies the various, and even opposing ways, in which Geddes has been interpreted up to this day, providing a new reading of his life, writing and plans.Relying on Geddes' extensive writings, the book also provides scholars of planning and related subjects, for the first time, a much needed, long overdue model of his urban theory. Rebutting earlier appreciations of Geddes' sensitive planning, the scheme is presented as a formative and a deterministic paradigm in which City and Society became the subjects of a mutual transformation towards predefined 'ideal' city and 'civilized' society. Current perspectives in Geography and Postcolonialism are used to examine the practice of this theory through Geddes' greatly celebrated ' yet hardly studied - work in India and in Palestine. Studying Geddes' plans for such different cities as Edinburgh, Calcutta and Tel-Aviv, the book suggests a critical reading of Geddes' colonial work, offering a valuable contribution towards the concretisation of the theoretical frameworks and to local historians as well.Geddes' scrutiny is finally presented as a case study for Town Planning as a whole. Tying together for the first time key concepts in cultural geography and colonial urbanism, the book proposes a more vigorous historiography, exposing hidden narratives and past agendas still dominating the disciplinary discourse. Written by a cultural geographer and a town planner, this book offers a rounded, full-length analysis of Geddes' vision and its material manifestation, functioning also as a much needed critical tool to evaluate Modern Town Planning as an academic and practical discipline.
The insurance industry has become more and more creative in developing policies that are flexible enough to meet consumers' needs while maintaining a reasonable cost. As a result, insurance and financial advisory professionals must stay current with the newest techniques and latest tools that have emerged. The expert authors of The Tools & Techniques of Life Insurance Planning, 6th Edition, have delivered a resource that helps you do just that. It delivers: Detailed information about the entire range of life insurance products that can be used by estate and financial planners in a wide variety of circumstances Planning techniques for retirement income needs, estate and gift tax avoidance, estate liquidity needs, and long-term care planning Plain-language descriptions of the tax consequences of various life insurance products and strategies that plans can use to minimize tax liabilities Planning techniques for individuals and businesses, including key personnel policies and buy-sell agreements Coverage of advanced topics, such as 103 exchanges, the transfer-for-value rule, and the use of life Insurance products for charitable gift planning The Tools & Techniques of Life Insurance Planning, 6th Edition, Delivers the Expert Insight and the Tools You Need to Utilize Life Insurance in the Most Effective Ways This latest edition includes new and expanded coverage of: Strategies for life insurance planning that take into account higher tax rates and the new Net Investment Income Tax Expert advice on how to modify existing life insurance plans in light of recent changes to portability rules and the increased estate tax exemptions Updates on DOMA/same-sex marriage issues and their effect on life insurance planning for new and existing clients Insight in to how state-level changes to dynasty trusts and the Rule against Perpetuities (RAP) affect life insurance planning Enhanced buy-sell agreement strategies Information about entity redemption as a technique for providing estate tax liquidity .
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