This book focuses on the legal implications of how assets are held on behalf of investors by other parties (such as brokers, investment managers, specialist custodians and central depositaries) and in particular how the chosen method affects the legal rights of the investor over the assets in question. The impact of immobilisation, dematerialisation, fungible holdings and settlement practices are all considered. The book also covers the effect of the use of custody assets for security, the duties of custodians, the remedies of investors, cross-border custody and the regulatory response to custody business. An authoritative work for practitioners, academics and reference libraries specializing in financial services, banking and investment law, both in the UK and internationally, it provides one of the clearest and most up to date analyses of these subjects available.
State governments are ultimately competitors in their economic policies when people, products and capital are free to move across state borders. Nowhere is this competition more apparent than in the United States where individual states compete to promote economic growth by attracting industry with tax holidays, outright grants, subsidized financing and other means. Yet, the arguably greater influence of state fiscal policy on investment decisions has largely been ignored. This book redresses that deficiency by providing a collection of chapters which discuss the theoretical and practical linkage between investment strategy and state economic policy. Specifically, it uses changes in relative state burdens as a measure of state fiscal policy and shows that by altering the incentives to work, save and invest, changes in a state's tax burden relative to other states influence decisions on whether, how much and where to invest. The book is divided into three parts. The first section provides the theoretical framework for the book and discusses application of the basic model to explain the persistent differences in observed real income across states; the level of economic activity; and business starts and failures. The second section discusses, among other things, the implications of changes in state economic policy for investments in real estate; common stocks of small capitalization firms; and state general obligation bonds. The third section of the book, which examines the political dimensions of state economic policy, begins with a discussion of the effect of state economic policy on relative population shifts and reapportionment and ends with a proposal for a flat tax.
This book records the first success stories of a new form of financial intermediation, the hometown investment fund, that has become a national strategy in Japan, partly to meet the need to finance small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) after the devastating earthquake and tsunami in March 2011. The hometown investment fund has three main advantages. First, it contributes to financial market stability by lowering information asymmetry. Individual households and firms have direct access to information about the borrowing firms, mainly SMEs, that they lend to. Second, it is a stable source of risk capital. The fund is project driven. Firms and households decide to invest by getting to know the borrowers and their projects. In this way the fund distributes risk but not so that it renders risk intractable, which was the problem with the "originate and distribute" model. Third, it contributes to economic recovery by connecting firms and households with SMEs that are worthy of their support. It also creates employment opportunities, at the SMEs as well as for the pool of retirees from financial institutions who can help assess the projects. Introduction of the hometown investment fund has huge global implications. The world is seeking a method of financial intermediation that minimizes information asymmetry, distributes risk without making it opaque, and contributes to economic recovery. Funds similar to Japan's hometown investment fund can succeed in all three ways. After all, the majority of the world's businesses are SMEs. The first chapter explains the theory behind this method, and the following chapters relate success stories from Japan and other parts of Asia. This book should encourage policymakers, economists, lenders, and borrowers, especially in developing countries, to adopt this new form of financial intermediation, thus contributing to global economic stability.
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